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2020考研英語:填空模擬題(5)

2019-09-27 11:28:43| 來源:山西中公教育

山西考研網為大家帶來2020考研英語:填空模擬題(5),為你考場作答撥云見霧愿各位考生在考試中得到滿意的分數。

Aging poses a serious challenge to OECD(Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development)countries,in particular,how to pay for future public pension liabilities. And early retirement places an__1__burden on pension financing. There is no easy solution,but__2__retirement could help.

Early retirement may seem like a worthy individual goal,but it is a socially__3__one,and makes the present public pension system difficult to sustain for long. The__4__reason is that more people are retiring early and living longer. That means more retirees depending on the__5__of those in work for their income. The__6__is worrying. In the next 50 years,low fertility rates and__7__life expectancy in OECD countries will cause this old-age dependency rate to roughly double__8__size. Public pension payments,which afford 30-80% of total retirement incomes in OECD countries,are__9__to rise,on average,by over three percentage points in GDP and by as much as eight percentage points in some countries.__10__is the pressure on pension funds that there is a danger of today‘s workers not getting the pensions they expected or felt they__11__for.

Action is needed,__12__simply aiming to reduce the__13__(and cost)of public pensions,or trying to__14__the role of privately funded pensions within the system,though necessary steps,may be__15__to deal with the dependency challenge. After years of__16__early retirement schemes to avoid__17__and higher unemployment,many governments are now looking__18__persuading people to stay in work until they are older. Surely,the thinking goes,if we are healthier now and jobs are physically less__19__and unemployment is down,then perhaps the__20__rate should rise anew.

1.[A] unsolvable [B] additional [C] unsustainable [D] undue

2.[A] delaying [B] retaining [C] detaining [D] hindering

3.[A] ultimate [B] unattainable [C] specific [D] expensive

4.[A] substantial [B] essential [C] potential [D] controversial

5.[A] donating [B] sponsoring [C] subsidizing [D] funding

6.[A] outlook [B] outcome [C] outbreak [D] outset

7.[A] prolonging [B] expanding [C] soaring [D] rising

8.[A] in [B] on [C] by [D] for

9.[A] conceived [B] reckoned [C] expected [D] meant

10.[A] As [B] Such [C] So [D] It

11.[A] should pay [B] paying [C] be paid [D] would pay

12.[A] but [B] for [C] and [D] thus

13.[A] multitude [B] implementation [C] application [D] generosity

14.[A] exaggerate [B] augment [C] magnify [D] multiply

15.[A] insufficient [B] influential [C] inefficient [D] intrinsic

16.[A] advancing [B] previous [C] ahead [D] preceding

17.[A] suspensions [B] abundances [C] redundancies [D] discrepancies

18.[A] for [B] to [C] about [D] at

19.[A] turbulent [B] strenuous [C] compact [D] intricate

20.[A] dependency [B] fertility [C] present [D] mortality

答案

1.C 2.A 3.D 4.B 5.D 6.A 7.D 8.A 9.C 10.B

11.C 12.A 13.D 14.B 15.A 16.A 17.C 18.D 19.B 20.C

總體分析

本文主要討論了老齡化給經合組織國家現存養老體系帶來的挑戰。文章第一段指出老齡化給經合組織國家帶來的挑戰,并提出推遲退休可能對解決該問題有所幫助。第二段分析了早退休給養老體系帶來的問題,即越來越多的人早退休而壽命延長,隨著出生率的降低,就會有更多退休的人依靠更少工作的人來為他們養老,養老金在國家財政中所占的比例增加,成為無法承受的負擔。第三段探討了解決方法,指出僅僅減少公共養老金的數量,增加私有養老的比例是不夠的,許多政府在考慮說服人們晚退休。

全文翻譯

老齡化給經合組織國家,尤其是在如何支付未來的公共養老金負債方面,帶來了嚴重的挑戰。早退休給退休金的融資帶來了難以承受的負擔。沒有什么簡單的解決方案,但推遲退休(年齡)可能有所幫助。

早退休可能看起來是個值得追求的個人目標,但對于社會來說卻是昂貴的,它使當前的公共養老金系統難以持久;驹蚴歉嗟娜送诵菰缍鴫勖鼌s更長。這意味著更多的退休人員要依賴在職者的資助作為收入。這一前景是令人擔憂的。未來50年,經合組織國家的低出生率和預期壽命的增加將使這一老年依賴率提高大約一倍。占經合組織國家全部退休收入30%-80%的公共退休金的支出,在國內生產總值中的比例預期將平均增加超過三個百分點,而在有些國家甚至會增加八個百分點。養老基金的壓力如此之大以至于現在的工人有得不到他們預期或認為應該得到的養老金的危險。

行動是必需的,但僅僅試圖減少公共養老金的慷慨度或增加系統內私有養老金的作用,盡管是必要的,但在應對這種依賴挑戰方面仍是不夠的。前些年為了避免下崗及高失業,政府采取提前早退休的方案,而現在許多政府正考慮勸說人們晚點退休。當然,他們是這么想的,如果現在我們更加健康了、工作對體力的要求降低了、失業率也降低了,那么(工作)出席率可能也該重新上升了。

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